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Writing and Research


Using the work, words, opinions, theories, or ideas of others without properly giving credit is plagiarism. To avoid plagiarism, you must be diligent to use quotations and cite your sources. Paraphrasing is acceptable but still requires citation and changes from the original must be significant enough to take on your personal writing style (that is, it must 'sound' like you).

Citing Your Sources

Whenever you use words from another person or source you must give credit to the originator.
Whenever you utilize, suggest, or refer to an idea, opinion, theory, or concept from another source, you must give credit to that source.
Whenever you cite sources, you should provide all of the information about your source that is required by the type of citation style you are using.

Quoting Your Sources 

Whenever you use someone's words exactly as they were pronounced or written, you must put those words in quotation marks.
Changing only a few words does not avoid plagiarism. Either use the exact phrase with quotation marks or rewrite the phrase entirely.

For original research papers, quoting extensively from another source is generally not appropriate. Please consult with your professor if you are unsure about quotation length.

For more information see:

Penn State Library Learning Services - Plagarism and You

Penn State - Plagarism Tutorial

Duke University Libraries - Avoiding Plagiarism


Avoiding plagarism requires the use of a consitent citation style. While there are many different citation style guides (e.g., MLA, APA, Chicago), the Seminary expects students to follow Turabian: 

Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (revised by Wayne C. Booth Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and the University of Chicago Press editorial staff; 8th Edition; University of Chicago Press, 2013).

University of Chicago Press - Turabian Citation Guide

A Manual for Writers - Website

Georgetown University Library - Turabian Footnote/Endnote Style

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